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Jul 21, 2004 (CIDRAP News) – Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne disease that can kill humans and animals, is starting to grab the attention of American scientists because it could cause devastating outbreaks in the United States.The hemorrhagic fever virus has had a reputation for wreaking havoc with occasional outbreaks in Africa since at least the 1930s, when it was identified in Kenya. Rift Valley fever has remained largely confined to Africa since its debut, with brief forays into the Middle East.Experts say it’s hard to measure the likelihood that the disease could reach the United States. If it did, however, it could find a home, because mosquitoes found in the US are known to be suitable hosts.The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) includes RVF among its List A pathogens, which means countries must report outbreaks. Such an outbreak in the United States could stop exports in their hoofprints.”It disrupts the trade with live ruminants and meat and meat products,” said Will Hueston, DVM, PhD, director of the Center for Animal Health and Food Safety at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul. “All of a sudden you’ve got people concerned for themselves, their pets, and the food supply.”Rift Valley fever is a cunning stalker. It can lie dormant for years in mosquito eggs in small potholes in Africa. Flooding turns potholes into puddles and sparks the disease cycle. Infected adult mosquitoes feed on animals and people, passing along RVF, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Mosquitoes take up the virus along with blood when they bite infected people and many kinds of animals.RVF can affect a variety of livestock—including cattle, sheep, and goats—as well as bats, rodents, and dogs. It attacks the liver and causes symptoms ranging from fevers and listlessness to hemorrhage and abortion rates approaching 100% in pregnant sheep and goats. Mortality rates are 20% to 30% in adult sheep, up to 10% in adult cattle, and much higher in lambs and calves.People can contract the virus from mosquitoes or by exposure to infected blood or fluids. Most RVF victims suffer only flu-like symptoms with fever and muscle aches. Serious illness can cause hemorrhaging, brain inflammation, liver abnormalities, vision loss, and death. Of those people who become sick enough to seek medical attention, roughly 10% to 13% die, explained T.G. Ksiazek, DVM, PhD, chief of the Special Pathogens Branch at the CDC’s National Center for Infectious Diseases. But the overall mortality rate for RVF in people is less than 1%.It’s reminiscent of another mosquito-borne illness that immigrated to the United States: West Nile virus.West Nile has been around for centuries but found the United States only in 1999, noted C. J. Peters, MD, director of biodefense and professor of pathology, microbiology, and immunology at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. Once it reached the country, it exploited bird populations and mosquitoes to create a niche, spreading across most of the country in just 5 years.No one knows whether RVF would prove as well-suited to life in the United States as West Nile is. But if it were, it could have a worse impact on human health. The disease sickens more exposed people and kills more people per infection than West Nile, Peters said. RVF is also more easily spread by aerosol, potentially exposing more veterinarians, lab workers, farmers, or others to the disease.Peters said RVF ranks high among diseases in its potential for being introduced to the United States, spreading, and having a big impact. Outbreaks cut a wide swath of illness and death. RVF caused the death of roughly 100,000 sheep in Kenya in 1950-51, a large outbreak among animals and humans in Egypt in 1977, and outbreaks in Saudi Arabia and Yemen in 2000, the first known cases outside of Africa, according to the CDC.Nobody is sure how the disease reached Saudi Arabia in 2000, Ksiazek said, although that strain is the same as one implicated in RVF in East Africa in 1997 and 1998.The virus also makes a great aerosol, Peters said. The US army was working to weaponize RVF before the US biological weapons program was stopped in the 1970s, and the Soviets were interested in the same possibility.Preparing for the possible arrival of RVF in the United States poses several challenges, said Peters, who is working on potential RVF vaccines. He recommends three steps the United States should take now.First, develop a vaccine that stops the spread of RVF in livestock. There is no suitable agricultural vaccine, Peters said. Quarantines and mosquito control would also be used to stem the disease. Stopping RVF in livestock, its main reservoir, is believed to control the disease, Peters said, but he cautioned that the belief is based on limited circumstances outside of the United States.That’s why a human RVF vaccine is the second step, he added. Although the US Army made a vaccine for people in the 1960s, it was impractical for wide use, Peters said.Third, create standardized diagnostic tools and have them on hand before an outbreak, because RVF has an incubation period of hours to days.”This thing can move,” he said. “It would be good to have diagnostic tools on the shelf.”Once a vaccine is developed, other issues will affect its use, said Hueston. The challenge is how much vaccine to develop, how to keep it viable, and how to distribute it quickly.Prevention and awareness are critical, Hueston said. Getting medical professionals to consider whether a patient’s symptoms could be RVF means reinventing a medical axiom, he added: These days, when doctors hear hoofbeats, they have to think first of horses, and then consider zebras.”The challenge is to walk that narrow line of let’s educate and be prepared while at the same time not say the sky is falling,” Hueston said.In the absence of an RVF vaccine program, public health response would rely heavily on mosquito control efforts, experts said.”Without knowing how the virus would behave here, it’s hard to know [the impact of RVF],” said David Neitzel, MS, an epidemiologist in the acute disease investigation and control division of the Minnesota Department of Health. But he said many mosquitoes and black flies could transmit RVF in the United States, potentially providing hosts for the virus to take hold under varied environmental conditions.If Rift Valley reached the Minneapolis–St. Paul area, the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District would be “pretty well geared up to control potential vectors,” Neitzel said. However, no such network covers the rest of Minnesota, and creating one would be costly.”The amount of money it takes to do an integrated pest management program would make it cost-prohibitive to do the entire state,” Neitzel said.See also:CDC description of RVFhttp://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/rvf.htmCIDRAP overview of RVF
So far this year 388 cases of human West Nile virus infection have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The total includes 13 fatalities. Despite patients’ persistent symptoms, most returned to a reasonable level of functioning and independence, the researchers noted. The researchers emphasized the high prominence of fatigue among patients; 41 (84%) reported fatigue, and half of them had fatigue scores that resembled patients who have moderate to severe multiple sclerosis. According to the CDC, West Nile virus, a flavivirus, infected at least 2,949 people in 2005, causing 116 deaths. Although 80% of those infected will have no symptoms, about 20% will develop a fever, headache, tiredness, body aches, and, occasionally, a rash on the trunk. One in 150 patients develops severe neuroinvasive disease, such as encephalitis, meningitis, or poliomyelitis, according to the CDC. Of the 49 patients in the study, 11 (22%) had been diagnosed with West Nile meningitis or encephalitis and 38 (78%) had been diagnosed with West Nile fever. Fifteen (31%) of the patients had been hospitalized. The fever group included all of the nonhospitalized patients and four who had been hospitalized. The retrospective cohort study, published in the Sep 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, involved 49 patients who were identified through North Dakota’s disease surveillance system. In 2003 when the disease had its largest spike in North America, North Dakota reported 617 cases. Paradoxically, patients who had more severe illness were not more likely than those with less severe illness to report more chronic symptoms. “On the contrary, some of the few statistically significant associations found in our study were higher rates of fatigue, word-finding difficulties, and excessive sleepiness in the nonhospitalized group of patients,” they wrote. The most common complaints reported by patients were fatigue, memory problems, extremity weakness, word-finding difficulty, and headache. The surveys revealed an overall sense of poor health in 24 (49%) patients, fatigue in 24 (49%), depression in 12 (24%), and moderate to severe disability in 4 (8%). Ten patients (20%) reported new tremor. Neuropsychological testing showed abnormalities in motor skills, attention, and executive function. No significant associations were apparent between any of the patients’ risk factors and the study findings. They theorized that fatigue alone may not explain the patients’ clinical and neuropsychological symptoms, which may be caused instead by subtle disease damage to the frontal-subcortical brain structures. Aug 16, 2006 (CIDRAP News) West Nile fever may not be the benign illness it’s usually considered to be, according to findings from a North Dakota research group. See also: The patients were assessed on average 13 months after they were diagnosed. Their medical records were reviewed, and they underwent a complete neurologic examination and took standardized surveys to determine their quality of life, functional ability, fatigue level, and depression level. Extensive neuropsychological testing was performed to gauge patients’ cognitive function. Patients who have had West Nile virus infections can continue to experience troubling symptoms, even a year after their illness, the researchers found. Carson PJ, Konweko P, Wold KS, et al. Long-term clinical and neuropsychological outcomes of West Nile virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2006 Sep 15;43(6):723-30 [Full text] “This might suggest that West Nile fever is not a self-limited benign illness, as previously though, and may, in fact, be a subclinical encephalitis,” the researchers wrote. CDC West Nile virus 2006 cumulative case count
Sep 26, 2007 (CIDRAP News) – An Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee that studied issues concerning personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare workers in an influenza pandemic is calling for renewed efforts to learn how influenza viruses spread, promote proper use of PPE, and improve the equipment itself.The 12-member panel met in Washington, DC, in February and May to hear comments from stakeholders such as medical experts, manufacturers, and government agencies on masks, gowns, respirators, and related items. The group’s mission was to recommend research directions, government agency roles, and policy changes, but not to issue guidelines about PPE use during a pandemic.The group’s 192-page peer-reviewed report was released Sep 18. It says the study was requested by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).More than 13 million US workers are employed in healthcare, according to the report, and public health officials worry that in a pandemic, medical staff won’t report to work if they don’t feel they’re adequately protected.Divided into three main parts, the report explores what is known and where research gaps exist concerning influenza transmission, use of PPE among healthcare workers, and PPE design, testing, and certification.Flu transmission studies badly neededMost studies on influenza transmission were conducted before 1970, and the report says more research should be done to build on earlier findings and apply new technologies, which include airborne-particle size analyzers and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Advances in fields such as aerobiology and mathematical modeling could also contribute to the study of seasonal and avian influenza, the group reported.The group recommends that the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), in collaboration with other US and global partners, lead a focused research effort to better understand the transmission and prevention of seasonal and avian influenza. The global research network would:Identify and rank research questions, as well as suggest potential study designsPrioritize funding for short-term (1 to 3 years) laboratory and clinical studies on seasonal influenza transmission and prevention, focusing on the efficacy of different PPE itemsDevelop evidence-based research protocols and implementation plans for clinical studies during an influenza pandemicStrategies to promote routine PPE useIn analyzing PPE utilization by healthcare workers, the group noted that despite recommendations and high-risk settings, many employees don’t wear the gear when they should. Healthcare institutions should do more to promote a “culture of safety” regarding PPE use by their employees, the report says.”Employees should feel uncomfortable when not wearing PPE during appropriate situations, and supervisors should reinforce the importance of PPE and enforce policies so that noncompliance is the rare exception and not the rule,” the authors state.Recommendations for boosting PPE use in healthcare workers include:Emphasizing appropriate PPE use in patient care settings as well as in healthcare management, accreditation, and trainingIdentifying and sharing best practices for improving PPE compliance; the authors recommend that the CDC and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) support and evaluate demonstration projects on improving PPE adherenceResearching the human factors and behavioral issues related to PPE use, an effort that could be supported by agencies such as NIOSH, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and AHRQRaising the bar for PPE design and testingSeveral of the group’s recommendations focus on improving PPE design, testing, and certification. More rigorous premarket testing is needed to ensure that PPE products work well in clinical settings, the authors assert. Evidence-based standards and comparison ratings should be developed for PPE items, they said.In a letter prefacing the report, Lewis Goldfrank, MD, chair of the committee and chair of emergency medicine at New York University School of Medicine, wrote that the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) standards for evaluating and approving PPE are not as high as for the drugs or vaccines it regulates.”It is our belief that healthcare workers will feel secure only when the PPE that they are asked to wear is as safe and as effective as the vaccines and medications they are asked to take,” he wrote.Several federal agencies have important roles in supporting effective use of PPE, and more coordinated efforts are needed to harmonize requirements and expedite all the development and implementation steps, the IOM committee says. “NIOSH, though the NPPTL [National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory], is well suited to ensuring this integrated approach,” they note.Though the committee wasn’t asked to consider PPE for family members and others who will provide home care or want to protect themselves during a pandemic, the report points out some difficulties in that area. For example, new respirator designs that minimize or remove the need for fit testing would be beneficial, and PPE sold in retail stores is subject to limited regulation.The committee asserts that addressing its recommendations in the next 6 to 12 months would significantly improve the nation’s pandemic readiness.See also:Sep 18 IOM statementIOM report on PPE for healthcare workershttp://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11980Mar 1 CIDRAP News story “IOM studying protective garb for health workers”
Apr 1, 2009H5N1 strikes another Egyptian youngsterEgypt’s state news agency said today that a 2-year-old Egyptian boy has been hospitalized with an H5N1 avian influenza infection, Reuters reported. The country’s health ministry said the boy, from Beheira governorate in northern Egypt, got sick after he had contact with infected birds. He was hospitalized and started on oseltamivir (Tamiflu) on Mar 30 after coming down with a high fever. If the World Health Organization (WHO) confirms the boy’s case, the H5N1 count for Egypt will rise to 61 cases, of which 23 have been fatal.[Apr 1 Reuters story]Flu vaccine rated as 53% effective in Australian studyResearchers estimated seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness over five seasons (2003-07) in Victoria, Australia, at 53%, but the number dropped to 41% when they adjusted for age-group and year. The researchers used a retrospective case-control approach with a surveillance system that yielded all patients’ influenza and vaccination status, according to their report in the April issue of PLoS One. Patients who tested positive for influenza went to a WHO collaborating center for virus culture and typing. The investigators found no significant differences in vaccine effectiveness in years when the flu vaccine was well-matched to circulating strains compared with years when the match was poorer.[April PLoS One study]Cross-contamination suspected in tainted pistachiosFederal investigators still don’t know how four different Salmonella strains contaminated bulk pistachios that were received by Kraft Foods, but a Kraft spokeswoman said company auditors who recently visited Setton Farms, the source of the nuts, found that raw and roasted nuts weren’t adequately segregated, which might explain the problem, the Associated Press (AP) reported today. An official from Setton Farms also said he suspected cross-contamination. Meanwhile, Salmonella findings so far have touched off recalls of 63 pistachio products, according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[Apr 1 AP story][FDA pistachio recall database]Cases rise in sprout-linked Salmonella outbreakA multistate Salmonella Saintpaul outbreak, which might be linked to contaminated sprouts, has grown to 121 cases in Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Kansas, and Colorado, the AP reported yesterday. The case count was listed in a lawsuit against an Omaha, Neb., sprout company, SunSprout Enterprises, by a Nebraska man. So far, investigators have not isolated the outbreak strain from any sprout samples.Prions found in antler velvet of elk with chronic wasting diseaseInfectious prion proteins are found in the antler velvet of elk that have chronic wasting disease (CWD), as revealed by tests involving CWD-susceptible transgenic mice, according to a report in Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID). The authors say the finding suggests that antler velvet, which is shed annually, may play a role in CWD transmission. Given the market for antler velvet in traditional Asian medicine, the finding also indicates that people who consume the material as a nutritional supplement are at risk for exposure to prions. CWD is a brain disease of deer and elk that resembles bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or mad cow disease.[EID report]Researchers launch online vector databaseTo ease the development of risk maps and other assessments, an international group of researchers has developed a Web-based, publicly accessible Disease Vector Database. The purpose is to gather and display data on the geographic distribution of infectious disease vectors and reservoirs, according to a report in the March issue of PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. The database, housed at the University of Texas at Austin, currently contains records for dengue and malaria vectors, as well as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis vectors and reservoirs.[March PLoS Negl Trop Dis report]Comparing three online outbreak-monitoring systemsA report in EID compares three online systems that collect and process information about disease outbreaks and other public health threats from a wide range of electronic sources. The systems are GPHIN, which monitors media information and provides reports to paying subscribers; HealthMap, which collects and maps disease outbreak information from media and nonmedia sources; and EpiSPIDER, which was designed as a visual supplement to the disease reports from ProMED-mail. The EID article, written by the inventors of the three systems, says they are complementary because they monitor different kinds of data, rely on varying levels of automation and human analysis, and distribute distinct information. “Future development should focus on linking these systems more closely to public health practitioners in the field and establishing collective networks for alert verification and dissemination,” the report states.[EID report]
While other destinations in Kvarner were developing as tourists, the city of Bakar, due to industry, has been in tourist isolation for decades. With the departure of Koksara, this city, thanks to the activities of the tourist community, slowly began to revive tourism, primarily through numerous summer events.Wanting to make a step towards the year-round tourist offer, the Tourist Board of the City of Bakar began the spring with the opening of the Ponikve Educational Trail, which is located near the village of Ponikve in the Bakar hinterland. Namely, it is a phenomenon of karst lake that arises and disappears, which has so far intrigued passers-by, but now there will be many more in the Ponikvar valley because all plant, animal, historical and karst features are united in an 8,5 km long educational trail. was realized with the funds of the City of Bakar, the Tourist Board of the City of Bakar and the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County.”The Ponikve educational trail was created as an incentive for the local population to recognize Ponikve as an excursion destination throughout the year and as an additional offer for tourists who can get to know the diverse natural heritage of our region in Ponikve. Lake “now it is, now it is not” is a special tourist offer precisely because it is a real magic trick of nature that brings visitors in one moment enjoying the peace and greenery of the rich flora (over 600 plant species and one endemic) which is also the habitat of three large beasts (wolf, bear and lynx) and getting to know the remains of the past by climbing to the Liburnian forts on the slopes with unforgettable views, and at another moment brings a view of the impressive lake and the possibility of diving in it or for a little less brave, a boat ride on its surface. With the first storm, the water recedes and the lake disappears, so Ponikve is an unavoidable destination of the copper hinterland that is always worth visiting because you never know how nature will play and whether you will be greeted by a lake or green valley ideal for a trip and stay in nature., emphasized the director of the Tourist Board Sonja Jelušić Marić and pointed out that the beauty and richness of this landscape can be seen on the website TZ Bakra where there are fascinating photographs taken by diver photographers and a wealth of information about the diversity of Ponikava.In Ponikve, a fascinating and unpredictable game of nature takes place in which the green Ponikvera valley instantly turns into a lake up to 20 m deep when rains and melted snow fill the underground caves with water and it erupts to the surface. Then the forest world becomes underwater and flowering trees in the spring, paths, dry stone walls and hunting lodges become a unique paradise for divers.The lake “now it has it, now it is gone” is a natural phenomenon that is a great basis for various tourist stories, of course the lake itself is a phenomenal story, but it should certainly be enriched with various “spices” ie extensions of tourist stories related to the lake. . One of these is the educational educational trail, and the sequel I hope is yet to come.
Growth, growth and only growth, until when growth?Dubrovnik continues to achieve record tourist results in the first eight months! According to the data of the system for registration and deregistration of tourists E-visitor, not counting data from nautical, from January 1 to August 31, 2018, 921 tourists stayed in Dubrovnik, which is 531% more than in the same period in 6 . This year, three million overnight stays were realized five days earlier than last year. As of August 31, 2018, 3 overnight stays were realized, ie 063% more than last year. In the first eight months, the most numerous tourists were from the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Australia, Croatia, Finland and Norway. From 1 January to 31 August this year, 472 guests stayed in hotel accommodation, which is an increase of 871% compared to last year, and 5 overnight stays were realized, 1% more than last year. In the first seven months of this year, there were 573 arrivals in private accommodation, ie 658% more than in the same period last year, and 2 overnight stays, which is 335% more than in 980. Currently, almost 20 tourists stay in Dubrovnik. From 000 August to 1 August, 31 tourists stayed in Dubrovnik (226% more than in August 771), and 7 overnight stays were realized (3% more than in August 2017). The most numerous tourists in August were from the following countries: the United Kingdom, France, Italy, the United States, Spain, Germany, Australia, Ireland, Croatia and the Netherlands, according to the Dubrovnik Tourist Board.Champagne is opening for another record season, and it is this uncontrolled growth that is destroying the entire city. It destroys the freedom that the city is so proud of. Free movement of the local population, because the citizens of Dubrovnik can no longer normally go to the store, post office, pharmacy, doctor normalno due to the incredible crowds, the inability to park and move.Growth in itself is not a purposeGrowth in itself is not a purpose. For when more that growth, certainly not for the domestic economy and the local population because the citizens of Dubrovnik have long since lost their city. It is this famous fascination with numbers that will lead us to ruin, in fact we are already unaware of it. We live on rent from the sun and the sea, ie positional rent. The biggest profit from tourism is on VAT, and instead of encouraging the local economy through tourism that connects various industries vertically and horizontally, we encourage imports.We fall for eggs, potatoes, mussels, lettuce… What is Dubrovnik’s daily need for home-made eggs? It is a question and a challenge that we have to deal with.When we are so successful and intoxicated with statistics, why do we have a problem with the workforce? Why are there no students enrolled as waiters at the Ambroz Haračić High School in Lošinj this year, while only two students at Rab have enrolled in the profession?We have destroyed the profession, the workforce, the local economy, destinations are cracking at our seams and our main natural resource.For the Tourist Board of the City of Dubrovnik, the Institute of Tourism conducts a large survey “Attitudes and consumption of tourists and visitors in Dubrovnik – TOMAS Dubrovnik 2018”. It will be interesting to see the final results. Dubrovnik is unfortunately a destination for half or a day, it does not tell its story about the achievements and power of the Republic of Dubrovnik, as if it only makes sense to walk through the walls and take a selfie to brag that someone was in Dubrovnik.The only direction is strategic and sustainable tourism, the rest leads to ruin in the long run.
The deadline for submitting all applications is October 15, 2018. See more about the conditions in the attachment.Attachment: PUBLIC INVITATION JOINT ADVERTISING 2019 Associated advertising includes general destination promotion, promotion of accommodation and other forms of tourist offer of the destination. Advertising the offer of the destination (accommodation and other forms of tourist offer and events) refers to the offer in the pre-season and post-season, ie to the year-round offer in destinations that do not have access to the sea or in underdeveloped tourist areas (TNP). The Croatian National Tourist Board (CNTB) has announced a public call for joint advertising in public and private sector promotional campaigns in 2019
WWF Adria is starting the implementation of a project to reduce food waste in hotels in Croatia and Serbia, and is looking for a consultant or organization experienced in implementing sustainable solutions in the hospitality sector.WWF will help develop and implement solutions focused on preserving hotel food, based on principles HotelKitchen.”The person we hire will work closely with selected hotels and employees in the process of changing to a zero waste solution strategy.” points out WWF Adria.A description of the required qualifications (see attached), send applications to firstname.lastname@example.org by October 30, and point out “Hotel Food Conservation Program Consultant” as a subject, conclude WWF Adria.Side dish: Job description of a consultant in the Food Waste program of WWF Adria
In such uncertainty, it is difficult to make medium-term decisions, even plans. Our priorities are “narrow”. The health of all family members, the most basic means of subsistence, “cutting” costs, giving up all unnecessary “consumers”, postponing plans… We really live from today to tomorrow, until the new news. Life in the city is comfortable, but not particularly healthy. The attractiveness of cities is declining sharply with the decline of the economy, job losses, lack of personal income. In the city you can’t sow beans on the balcony, raise chickens in the toilet – where they will lay an egg every day… In the city you can very quickly become a helpless social case. The village is “IN” again After the Homeland War, but also major geo-political changes in Europe in the late eighties and early nineties of the last century, the structure of passengers changed and so did the structure of supply. The era of “apartmentization” begins. To this day, we have not come even close to tourism as we knew it in the seventies and eighties of the last century. THE MORE WE THINK, THE SLOWER WE ACT The only answer we can give is to follow the developments day and night and to keep you informed. We will share with you our experiences, our practice. Let’s go together step by step. Everything changes again. Tourism will also change. It will no longer be as we knew it until this year. We have already slowly learned that it is easier to endure a longer period of self-isolation in the countryside than in the city. We are also used to less work, remote work, less shopping, shopping through web platforms. We change shoes and clothes less, we buy and pile things less, we have no one to show off in new clothes, a new car or a boat. Of course, incomes have also decreased, we are less and less creditworthy. What will happen to “City breaks”? How will cruise travel take place? When will long journeys return? How will group trips be performed? What will happen to school excursions, to retirement trips?… A whole range of open issues has not even been touched on, the functioning of hotels, car, boat and house rentals, the way restaurants operate is currently being discussed… GREAT CRISES BRING BIG CHANGES Tourism on the supply and demand side is still tied to that of our emotional ego. Tourist trips symbolize all that is dearest to us, and denied. Casual socializing, a feeling of complete relaxation, the pleasure when everyone tries to please you, freedom of movement, research, learning and constant learning about others and different, carefree, sun, sea, beach… This is our goal, our “escape from prison”. Tourism is freedom, and freedom is now limited, controlled; temporarily with a very stretchable notion of that temporality. Tourism is increasingly equated with getting out of the “crown of the crisis”. Yet the desire for freedom is stronger than all obstacles. It seems that the break between the “two halves” of the “crown of the crisis” will still be used for a short escape to freedom, to tourism. Summer is a concept of freedom. AFTER A SHORT REST, A RETURN TO REALITY? So far, our only real way out was a walk in nature. We like that. We also did a little more cooking, so we discovered that not all foods are equally delicious, but not healthy either. More than ever we spend time with our family, we get to know our children better and we respect them more and more. Their advice will be more and more important to us, our children live the reality while we are for the most part of our thoughts tied to the past. What is really going on? When will it be possible to travel freely in the region, then in the country and then abroad… Have we already gone through the most difficult period or are real difficulties still waiting for us? Who to trust? Conspiracy theorists, epidemiologists, staffs, government officials, the media…? Apart from the daily tense expectations about the development of the pandemic and the measures that are being introduced or relaxed, other news has fallen into the background. We have almost forgotten that Croatia holds the presidency of the European Union, that Rijeka is still the European Capital of Culture, that our national football team is still the world runner-up… OUR LIFE IS CHANGING. THE WORLD IS CHANGING. TOURISM WILL ALSO CHANGE. IT WILL NO LONGER BE WHAT WE KNEW UNTIL THIS YEAR. The largest number of people suffering from the Covid 19 virus infection is concentrated in cities. Air saturated with pollution particles, with a high concentration of people, is an ideal carrier of infectious diseases, especially in optimal conditions of humidity and air temperature. WHERE IS TOURISM IN ALL THIS? Limited in movement and the realization of direct, live communication, we are slowed down with actions and reactions. The messages we receive and send are less and less spontaneous, decisions are “cooked”, “crunched”, even longer than it was before the “crown of the crisis”. There are no regular coffees with friends in your favorite cafe, only the first coffees are drunk shyly, we don’t go on a “regular tour” of fashion stores, we just peek shyly into the shop windows, we grow into thick hair and beards and conclude that it’s not bad or rush to the first free appointment at the hairdresser. Most of humanity lives in cities. Some have become mega cities, bigger than many countries, including Croatia. These cities are a symbol of progress, business opportunities, career advancement… But cities are also huge consumers of energy, food, water, garbage producers and air pollution. Today’s villages are quite well equipped with infrastructure, which includes high-speed internet. The freedom and dose of independence provided by the village becomes an advantage over the comfort of living in urban areas. Maybe people are starting to return to the countryside? Our emotional being wants to live as before, travel as before, socialize as before, but our person or “persona” still rearranges priorities from scratch. In the foreground is a credible source of information. AFTER THE PERIOD OF GOING TO THE CITY, RETURN TO THE VILLAGE? Tourist travel after World War II did not return to the ways and goals of pre-war travel. The number of tourist arrivals has been growing since 1955. Holidays on the Adriatic have become accessible, desirable and stimulated for workers as well. Tourism was entering the era of mass tourism. All the memorable great crises so far have brought radical changes in the way of life, the organization of society, the new economy. New, different tourism. Tourist travel recovered ten years after World War II and almost as much after the Homeland War. Women’s cosmetics are dealt with at home, even our pets are sharper than usual at this time of year. Slowly and patiently, these things are waiting their turn. We are trying to awaken creativity in all areas of life, so we are coping in some new ways. We live a “contactless life”, ie a “life at a social distance”. It is certainly a new situation. Our lives have, indeed, changed radically. Author Nedo Pinezić, www.nedopinezic.com / Photo: Unsplash.com